Adverb can be defined as “A word or phrase that modifies the meaning of an adjective, verb, noun, determiner, or other adverb, expressing manner, place, time, or degree (e.g. gently, here, now, very). Some adverbs, for example 'sentence adverbs', can also be used to modify whole sentences”.
“A word that describes or gives more information about adverb, adjective, adverb, or phrase”.
An adverb is a word which we use to modify the meaning of adjective, verb or other parts of speech. It is one of the parts of speech which tells us how, where, when, in what manner, and to what extent an action is performed in the sentence. Some of the adverbs end with 'ly' (which are used to express how an action is performed) such as carefully, gracefully, cheerfully, quickly, steadily, speedily, happily, foolishly, angrily, etc. However, some are without 'ly' such as well, very, fast, never, now, most, far, least, more, less, there., etc.
We can easily identify the availability of adverb in the sentence by seeing its function. If any word in the sentence is describing any of the parts of speech (verb, adjective or other adverb), it is an adverb. We can also recognize the availability of adverb in the sentence by looking the end of word (ending with 'ly'). Some frequency words like very, more, much, many, etc are also adverbs.
- I placed the flower pot carefully on the table. ('carefully' word is an adverb in this sentence and shows the example of how action is performed)
- My friend walks gracefully. ('gracefully' word is an adverb in this sentence and shows how to modify the meaning of verb)
- I run fast. ('fast' word is an adverb and provide more information about verb)
- I always eat healthy food. ('always' word is an adverb and modifies the verb to eat)
- I saw a very pretty girl in the car. ('very' word is an adverb)
- I will eat there. ('there' word is an adverb)
Sometimes, we do mistakes and use adjectives instead of adverb while making sentence and vice versa.
- I behaved very bad in the school. (It is a wrong sentence as, 'bad' is an adjective and describing a verb 'behaved').
- I behaved very badly. (It is a correct sentence as, 'badly' is an adverb and describing a verb 'behaved')
Sometimes, we do mistakes because of the confusing adverbs and adjectives such as 'good' and 'well' ('Good' word is an adjective which should describe the noun or pronoun whereas 'Well' word is an adverb which should modify any parts of speech).
- He is a good (It is a correct sentence, 'good' is an adjective describing a pronoun 'he')
- I listen well. (it is also a correct sentence, 'well' is an adverb describing a verb 'listen')
- I am a well educated boy. (it is also a correct sentence, 'well' is an adverb describing an adjective 'educated')
Types of Adverb
Different kinds of adverbs, expressing different meaning, are described below with proper definition and examples:
Adverb of time is an adverb which tells us about time of happenings or time of something is done in the sentence. Adverbs of time are used in the beginning (as a form of emphasis) or end of the sentence. Adverbs of time are like already, afterwards, immediately, always, last month, soon, then, now, and yesterday.
- He admitted to hospital and died yesterday.
- My factory caught fire and burned down in the last month.
- I have completed my homework already.
Adverb of place is an adverb which tells us about the place where something is done or happens in the sentence. It is used generally after the verb, object or end of the sentence. Adverbs of place are like below, here, above, inside, outside, there, over there, under, upstairs, etc.
- We need to stop here for dinner.
- He was eating under the table.
- A bird fly above in the sky.
Adverb of manner is an adverb which tells us about manner of how something is done or happens in the sentence. Such type of adverbs are generally end with 'ly' such as cheerfully, badly, quickly, happily, angrily, sadly, slowly. However, some are simple like fast, well, hard, etc.
- I went to school cheerfully.
- He runs fast.
- We celebrated teacher's day happily.
Adverb of degree or quantity is an adverb which tells us about the level or extent of something is done or happens in the sentence. It is used before the adjective or adverb. Adverbs of degree or quantity are like almost, nearly, quite, much, really, too, very, so, etc.
- It was too hard task for us to complete. (adverb is used before adjective)
- I am quite
- I am feeling really sad for my friend's father death.
Adverb of frequency is an adverb which tells us how often something is done or happens in the sentence. Adverbs of frequency are like almost, again, frequently, generally, ever, hardly ever, nearly, nearly always, always, occasionally, often, rarely, never, seldom, twice, usually, sometimes, and weekly.
- My parents were almost thirty when I born.
- He studies hardly during holidays.
- She thinks she is always right however it is not so.
- He told that he will never talk to me.
- I talk to my neighbors very occasionally.
Adverb of affirmation and negation is an adverb which confirms or denies the action of verb in the sentence. It is also used to reinforce the action of verb. Adverbs of affirmation are like definitely, surely, absolutely, etc however adverbs of denial or negation are like no, can’t, don’t, never, etc.
I will certainly go to the school. (adverb of affirmation)
I never leave you alone. (adverb of negation)
Using adverbs of comment, we can make a comment on entire sentence. This adverb can change and describe the verb as well as influence the whole sentence. Adverbs of comment are like fortunately, unfortunately, patiently, honestly, obviously, constantly, etc.
- Unfortunately, he got discharged from his post.
- Luckily, I got admission in the top college.
- Obviously, it is wrong way to do.
- We happily celebrated the birthday of our class teacher.
Adverb of conjunction help us in connecting the ideas or clauses. It shows effect, sequence, contrast, cause or other relationships between two clauses in the sentence. We need to use a semicolon (;) to conjugate two clauses. Adverbs of conjunction are like anyway, accordingly, consequently, again, contrarily, almost, as a result, besides, certainly, additionally, comparatively, consequently, comparatively, conversely, etc
Clause 1: He was going to attend an important meeting.
Clause 2: He made sure to attend meeting on time.
Use of Adverb of conjunction in the above two clauses:
- He was going to attend an important meeting; accordingly, made sure to attend meeting on time.
Adverb of reason is used to express the reason for, answer the question or purpose of an action in the sentence. Adverbs of reason are like therefore, hence, thus, consequently, so, since, etc.
- I was not working hard, therefore, I failed.
- Consequently he denied to come to the party.
10) Adverbs of Number
Adverb of number is used to show number of action of the verb in a sentence. Adverbs of number are like firstly, secondly, once, yearly, never, twice, lastly, etc.
- I eat food twice a day. (in this sentence, 'twice' is an adverb of number)
- He saw me once. (in this sentence, 'once' is an adverb of number, however it can also be an adverb of time depends on how it is used in the sentence).
There are three types of Adverbs of comparison, they are- positive, comparative and superlative adverbs. More....