Air Pollution Essay

With the development in the technology and industrial advancements man started his voyage to new inventions. But in course of creating a convenient life for him, he unknowingly invited many threats to the mankind. Air pollution is one of the threats of the urbanization and industrial revolution. We are so much busy in exhausting the natural resources that we forget that everything has a limit and whenever the limit is crossed a series of unfortunate incidents starts to unfold. Air pollution also has started showing its worst effects on us.

Long Essay on Air Pollution in English

Air pollution in the recent times has become a severe issue and each country is taking many steps to curb air pollution. In the below air pollution essay we will understand about air pollution, its types, its causes and effects, and what we can do to fight air pollution. You can go through this essay on air pollution to know in detail:

Long Essay on Air Pollution (1500 Words)


The increase in air pollution is a matter of discussion nowadays. Every individual is directly affected by air pollution.  Whether we are sitting in our homes or going to our office we directly come under the influence of air pollution. We always feel that we are safe in our home away from the deadly pollution but we forget that pollution is everywhere. Apart from outdoor air pollution there are many things in our homes and around us which causes air pollution. Let us discuss in detail about Air pollution.

Air Pollution

The addition of impurities and harmful gases in air is termed as Air Pollution. The impurities could be anything from normal dust particles to allergy causing pollen grains but one thing is certain, it affects our health and also leads to many serious and sometimes fatal diseases. The effects of air pollution are so severe that if it continues at the same rate then we won’t be able to breathe in open air. The toxic gases present in air can cause mild to severe asthma attacks and sometime heart failure. The substances which cause the air pollution are called as pollutants. There are many types of pollutants which cause pollution.

  • Pollutants

The substance which on mixing with natural resources like air or water leads to undesirable effects are called pollutants. These pollutants are very harmful to living beings as well as plants. There are many types of pollutants which highly affects the quality of air.

Types of Pollutants

Below are the major pollutants which are responsible for the air pollution:

  • Particulate Matter

Particulate matters are mostly solid and liquid substances with the radius ranging from less than 0.1 micron to 10 microns. Some of these particles are visible to naked eyes whereas some can be only seen under the microscope. E.g. dust, dirt, smoke, pollen etc.

  • Gases

Gases like Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Suplhur Dioxide, Ozone, Nitrogen Oxide etc. are few gases which are majorly responsible for the air pollution. Emissions from the factories and vehicle exhausts are the main sources of these gases.

  • Smog

When smoke and fog combines the resultant is called as Smog. These are very common in winter seasons. This pollutant not only affects the human body but also decreases visibility. There have been many accidents reported in past few years caused due to the intensive smog conditions.

Causes of Air Pollution

There are both man-made as well as natural causes of air pollution as follows:

  • Man-made Causes of Air Pollution

Burning of Fossil fuels – The burning of fossil fuels releases large amount of particulate matters and gases. It generates carbon dioxide and other harmful gases which are majorly responsible for pollution.

Industrial Pollution – The smoke coming out from the chimneys of factories majorly contains gases like Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide. These gases contributes to many health problems and also responsible for acid rains.

Vehicular Pollution – The smoke released during the combustion of car engines generates gases like Carbon Monoxide (CO) which is highly toxic and can cause CO poisoning. The incomplete combustion of the fuels in these vehicles is also responsible for increasing pollution.

Deforestation- Forests help in absorbing many harmful gases especially Carbon Dioxide and helps in reducing the concentration of these gases. Cutting down of trees on a larger scale has highly affected the carbon absorption and eventually the carbon dioxide concentration has increased in the atmosphere leading to air pollution and global warming.

  • Natural Causes of Pollution

Dust Storms - Heavy dust storms may worsen the issue of pollution and cause severe suffocation and many respiratory infections. It also affects people with chronic asthma worsening their conditions.

Volcanic Eruptions - The volcanic eruption releases higher amount of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide gases. It also emits a huge amount of ashes increasing the level of pollution in the region.

Wildfires- The forest fire is a natural cause of pollution. The wildfire continues for many days emitting a higher amount of harmful gases and ashes, the prime constituents for the air pollution.

Effects of Air Pollution

The effects of air pollution are not only harmful to human health but the increase in the greenhouse gases have given birth to a new threat called Global Warming.

Following are the effects of air pollution:

  • Affecting Human Health

The nitrogen and sulphur dioxide gases affect the airway passage and can cause lung infection. The particulate matters like pollen grains can cause severe allergy and may lead to asthma attacks. Too much of exposure to Carbon Monoxide can cause the reduction of oxygen to the blood streams and also lead to heart attacks. Exposure to smog can cause irritation in eyes, coughing and suffocation.

  • Acid Rain

If the concentration of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide increases in the atmosphere, it reacts with the water molecules and can cause precipitation which could be acidic in nature. The acid rain could lead to agricultural losses and extinction of many species. Highly acidic rain could also melt rocks and metals.

  • Global Warming

The industrial and vehicular pollution are increasing the concentration of the greenhouse gases like Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide etc. leading to global warming. Global warming causes many severe threats to the earth’s ecosystem which results in climate change, rise in the level of ocean, elongated seasons etc.

  • Affects Agriculture

Air pollution can also affect plants and trees. There are many incidents where the air pollution has already started showing its effects on agriculture leading to reduced yields. The air pollution directly affects the appearance and quality of fruits.

Prevention of Air Pollution

Prevention is always better than cure. Before the air pollution goes out of control it is our prime responsibility to act now and try to control it. Following are the few steps which we could take to prevent air pollution:

  • Harnessing the Renewable Sources of Energy

The fossil fuels are limited and they are not going to last forever. Also they are one of the sources of air pollution. Time has come to switch to renewable sources of energy like Solar, Water and Wind energy. Apart from being unlimited they are the cleanest form of energy and do not cause any type of pollution.

  • Reducing Vehicle Usage

It is our duty towards our mother nature to save her from ill effects of air pollution. Reducing the usage of vehicles will not only reduce pollution but also benefit us financially. We should walk or use bicycles to cover shorter distances. If every citizen of this world starts following this then the there will be significant amount of reduction in air pollution.

  • Reduce/Avoid Burning of Fossil Fuels

Burning of fossil fuels especially in villages should be reduced and awareness regarding use of bio gas or LPG should be made in rural areas. Government should provide subsidies on Bio-Gas installation and LPG gas cylinders in rural areas.

  • Use of Electronic Vehicles

Electronic vehicles like e-cars or e-bikes should be used instead of fossil fuel bases vehicles. These vehicles run on electric source and does not cause any harm to the environment and human body.

  • Plantation and Reforestation

Planting trees on large scale in our surroundings and in waste lands helps to clean the air and neutralizes the effects of air pollution. Development of micro forests within the city can also help in reducing the ill effects of the air pollution. Slogans like “Cut One, Plant Four” help in spreading awareness of plantation.

  • Avoiding Wastage of Electricity and Natural Resources

We should avoid the wastage of electricity because most of the electricity we get in our homes comes from power plants and using less electricity help save fossil fuels and in turn reduces air pollution. Natural resources like Water, Petroleum products, Natural Gas etc should be conserved and not overused.


Air pollution is a global threat and it is going to affect everyone residing in any country. It is not the duty only of our government or other organizations to fight air pollution, in fact it’s the responsibility of every individual to stand up and fight for it. Out of 20 most polluted cities of the world, 14 cities are in India so it becomes more important for us as citizens and as youths of this country to act now.

Let us pledge together that we will do our bit in curtailing air pollution and also help in spreading awareness so that we can make earth as green as it was before the inception of urbanization and industrial revolution. Our unified act of action can only make our environment so clean that out future generations do not have to use oxygen mask and they can breathe easily in open air.

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