Emergency in India was a long period of black phase in Indian History. Many historians consider it dark and some call it death of democracy. Of all the emergencies took place, the emergency of 1975 is a stain till date. There were arrests, attacks and sterilizations which created a negative image over the people of India.
In this page you will get to know about how emergency affected the democracy, country and government in India in form of sets of Paragraphs.
Paragraph 1 - 100 Words (What is an emergency?)
When the consultant group determines and warns that internal and external threats the nation face or a crisis of financial proportions arises, an emergency may be declared by the President, during which the constitution is altered.
By following the recommendations of the cabinet of ministers and applying the Constitution of India, the President has the ability to overrule many of the provisions of the constitution, including those that safeguard citizens' rights as well as those that govern state devolution of powers to states within the federal system. The constitution of India guarantees three types of emergencies in India mainly National, State and Financial emergencies. They have their own constitutional provisions mentioned in the constitutions.
Paragraph 2 - 120 Words (Constitutional Provisions of Emergency in India)
Emergency has been mentioned as 3 types in the XVIII part of constitution. These types are mentioned below with their legal aspects.
- National Emergency
Armed rebellion, war, or external aggression constitutes the basis for declaring a state of national emergency in India. Parliamentary discretion is required for emergency declarations to take place.
- State Emergency
A state of emergency or president's rule is an emergency measure imposed in response to external aggression, internal instability, or if constitutional provisions have not been followed. According to article 356a, a state can lose its government if circumstances are unfavorable.
- Financial Emergency
President of India also declares a financial emergency. In India, Article 360 of the Constitution governs the Financial Emergency. It is required to declare an emergency within 2 months after it has been issued.
Paragraph 3 - 150 Words (Emergency of 1975)
There is no doubt that the Emergency in India is a stain on the history of Indian democracy which Congress and the Indian people would like to forget. Thousands of activists and strike leaders were detained by police forces across the country. Atal Bihari Vajpayee and other protest leaders were arrested immediately alongside Jayaprakash Narayan, Raj Narain, and Charan Singh. For population control, Sanjay Gandhi implemented a widespread mass sterilisation program in September 1976. A total of 8.3 million sterilizations, most of them forced, were carried out under the programme in 1976-1977.
Parliamentary and state government elections have been postponed. One of the lasting legacies of the Emergency is the 42nd Amendment, which revised the Constitution in both letter and spirit. An RSS letter to Indira Gandhi requested that RSS workers be freed in return for support to the Emergency. Amritsar held a campaign launch on 9 July called "Campaign to Save Democracy." During the Emergency, more than 140 000 people were arrested without trial.
Paragraph 4 - 200 Words (Reasons behind 1975 emergency)
Verdict in Raj Narain Case
Raj Narain, a socialist leader who lost the Raebareli parliamentary elections to Gandhi in 1971, filed a petition in the Allahabad High Court. Gandhi was allowed into Parliament on June 24 after the Supreme Court confirmed the stay of the High Court order: till the appeal is decided, she can cast her vote.
Jayaprakash Narayan Movement
In March 1974, opposition forces participated in a student protest in Bihar. Jayaprakash Narayan, popularly known as JP, became the group's first leader after it was formed in 1971. The procession culminated in a call for 'total revolution' in Patna in June 1974. Rather than supporting the congressional government, he urged the dissenters to lobby for the resignation of existing legislators. The suspension of the Assembly was not conceded by Indira Gandhi. Her declaration of Emergency, however, was largely influenced by the JP movement.
Protests in Gujarat
Students at the L D College of Engineering in Ahmedabad went on strike in December 1973 to protest the hike in school fees. After a month, understudies of Gujarat University emitted in fight, requesting the excusal of the state government. Conflicts with the police, consuming of transports and government office and assaults on apportion shops turned into a regular event.
Paragraph 5 - 250 Words (Criticism and aftermaths of emergency of 1975)
The emergency had many aftermaths and criticism which are mentioned below. But the interesting part was endorsements. The emergency was supported by friendly reformer Vinoba Bhave (who called it Anushasan Parva, a period for discipline), industrialist J. R. D. Goodbye, essayist Khushwant Singh, and Indira Gandhi's dear companion and Orissa Chief Minister Nandini Satpathy. Notwithstanding, Tata and Satpathy later lamented that they supported the Emergency.
On 18 January 1977, Gandhi called for elections in March and delivered a couple of political detainees, many stayed in jail even after she was expelled, however the Emergency authoritatively finished on 21 March 1977. In the Lok Sabha decisions, held in March, Indira Gandhi and Sanjay both lost their Lok Sabha seats, as did all the Congress competitors in northern states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Congress was decreased to only 153 seats, 92 of which were from four of the southern states.
The Janata Party's 298 seats and its partners' 47 seats (of a complete 542) gave it a larger part. Morarji Desai turned into the primary non-Congress Prime Minister of India. Congress hit an unequaled low in West Bengal in view of the helpless discipline and factionalism among Congress activists just as the various rebellions that debilitated the party.
Confinement of individuals by police without charge or warning of families. Misuse and torment of prisoners and political detainees. Utilization of public and private media establishments, similar to the public broadcasting company Doordarshan, for government promulgation. Obliteration of the ghetto and low-pay lodging in the Turkmen Gate and Jama Masjid space of old Delhi. Enormous scope and illicit sanctioning of new laws (counting adjustments to the Constitution).
FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions
Ans. Emergency in India imposed on 1962 for the first time in India.
Ans. The emergency of 1962 was the longest emergency till date.
Ans. There are three emergencies that are imposed till date.
Ans. The tenure of 1975 emergency was 21 months.