The Republic Day of India is a national holiday celebrated on 26th January every year, to commemorate the inception of the Constitution of India. It replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the governing document of India as soon as it came into effect on 26 Jan in 1950. Thus the Republic Day commemorates the transformation of India from a colonial state to a completely independent republic. Republic Day holds much significance for Indian masses as it is the day when the nation became completely self-ruled after almost two centuries of subjugation.
What is Special about Republic Day 2023
- India will celebrate its 74th Republic Day on the 26th of January 2023.
- India invited President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi of the Egypt as the chief guest of our Republic day, it is for the first time India will welcome the Arab Republic of Egypt's President as the Chief Guest.
- In 2023, India's first woman President from tribal community, Draupadi Murmu, will take salute of the grand parade at the Rajpath (Kartavya Path) as she is the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
- Women power will command the parade on this Republic Day.
- In September 2022, the Prime Minister had named Rajpath as Kartavya Path, so in 2023, the first Republic Day parade would be held at this Kartavya Path.
- In this year's parade, a glimpse of India's strength will be seen in the tableau armed with DRDO's indigenously developed weapons. Divided into four parts, the DRDO tableau will showcase Underwater Surveillance Platform, D4 Counter Drone System, Armored Fighting Vehicle, Software Defined Radio, Air Defense System, etc respectively.
History of Republic Day of India
India’s struggle for independence has spanned over almost two centuries since 1857. Finally, on 15th August 1947, the day came when India gained independence from British rule; though partially, as the country was still to be governed as a Constitutional Monarchy with George VI as the head of state and Earl Mountbatten as the Governor-General. By that time India didn’t have its own constitution but was rather governed by the Government of India Act 1935.
On 29th August 1947, a constitution drafting committee was appointed under the chairmanship of B.R. Ambedkar. Henceforth, a draft constitution was prepared by the drafting committee and submitted to the Constituent Assembly on 4th November 1947. After making necessary changes and modifications, the Constitution came into effect on 26th January 1950. As the Constitution of India came into effect, it automatically nullified the 1935 Government of India Act; transforming India into an independent Republic governed by its own people.
How Do We Celebrate Republic Day?
Republic Day in India is celebrated enthusiastically with patriotic zeal and nationalistic fervor. Being a mandatory national holiday, everyone from students to professionals celebrates the day completely with absolute devotion.
A Grand Celebration in National Capital at Rajpath, India Gate
A grand Republic Day celebration takes place at the national capital New Delhi. The main celebration of republic day is held at Rajpath, a ceremonial road running from the President’s house in Raisina hills to the National War Memorial (India) also known as India Gate.
From India Gate, the Prime Minister arrives at Rajpath and heads to the dais prepared for the Chief Guest and the President. Soon after the Prime Minister, occupying the dais, the Vice President of India arrives and he is received by the Prime Minister himself. All of them together witness the event and be a part of this ceremony.
- Flower Tribute at Amar Javan Jyoti by PM
On Republic Day, before the commencement of the parade, the Prime Minister of India arrives at the Amar Jawan Jyoti along with the chiefs of all three defense forces – Army, Navy and Air Force. They take their turns in paying their respect to the fallen soldiers of India.
- Flag Hoisting by President & National Anthem
Finally, the President of India arrives with the Chief Guest, escorted by the legendary President’s Bodyguard also known as PBG. President hoists the national flag following the singing of National Anthem and distribution of gallantry awards by the President to the soldiers of Indian forces.
- 21 Gun Salute on Republic Day
Many of us know that India holds the tradition of giving 21 gun salutes on Republic Day; what most of us don’t know is to whom the salute is given and other minute details.
Gun salute is the highest honor any nation can bestow on a visiting dignitary. In India, 21 gun salute is accorded to the constitutional head – the President, when he takes the oath of office and also on republic Day when the nation greets a very dear friend in form of Chief Guest.
True that India adopted the tradition of 21 Gun Salute from the British era when the same was done to honor a visiting member of crown or Viceroys. Nevertheless, the tradition is now our very own.
But, do you know that the shots are perfectly synchronized with the National Anthem and the gun from which they are fired? The guns are operated by the soldiers of elite 871 field regiment and only vintage artillery is used. Also, the 21 cannons are subsequently fired at a precise interval of 2.25 seconds so that the salute covers the complete national anthem which takes around 52 seconds. Guns are fired in three successive rounds with each round firing seven cannons.
- Award Distribution
Generally, there are various awards distributed on the occasion of Republic day like Highest Civilian Awards, Gallantry awards, etc. But some of the awards are given on the Rajpath, whereas the others are given at President’s house. Awards like Param Vir Chakra (PVC), Mahavir Chakra (MVC) and Vir Chakra, Kirti Chakra, Ashok Chakra, Shaurya Chakra, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan, Padma Shri, etc. are given on this occasion by the President of India.
Chief Guest at Republic Day Parade
India has kept the tradition of inviting a foreign head of state as Chief Guest of its Republic Day celebrations, ever since 1950. The guest is strategically chosen after making an assessment of political and economic interests.
Between the 1950s to 1970s, a number of heads of states from the NAM (Non-Aligned Movement) countries and Eastern Bloc were invited as Chief Guest on Republic Day. In 1968 and then in 1974 India simultaneously had invited two heads of states. In 1968, Chairman Alexei Kosygin of the Soviet Union and President Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia were invited.
Similarly, in 1974, President Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia was once again invited along with Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka, as the Chief Guest on Republic Day.
In 2023, the honorable chief guest in India at the Republic Day 2023 will be Egypt's President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.
Republic Day Parade Event
A grand Republic day parade is performed at the Rajpath, India Gate while celebrating the day. People all over the country as well as abroad enjoy live webcasts of the event celebration in Delhi on their TV at home. In this parade, almost all the states, every wing of Indian armed forces, Indian paramilitary forces, and school students participate in the parade and present a Jhanki at Rajpath.
The preparations actually begin months in advance. The parade includes a display of India’s military power, cultural heritage, and brotherhood. The events are witnessed by thousands of citizens, school children, and several dignitaries including the Hon’ble President of India, Prime Minister of India, and the Chief Guest.
Importance of Republic Day
Republic Day is important because on this day we adopted our Constitution in the year 1950. We got independence from the British after 200 years and when we became independent, we needed our own Constitution. It was 26 November 1949 when the making of the constitution got ready, but it was chosen 26 January 1950 to implement it. We celebrate this day because we Indians got our fundamental rights, the right to live freely in our own nation. We got independence on 15 August but in the true sense, we got freedom on 26 January 1950, in terms of our rights.
Beating the Retreat Ceremony
Beating Retreat is a ceremony held three days after the Republic Day that is on 29th Jan to officially declare the closure of Republic Day celebrations. The ceremony takes place in the evening at Vijay Chowk in Raisina Hills. The performance is made by the bands of all three forces of the Indian military – the air force, the army, and the navy.
The Chief Guest of the beating retreat ceremony is the President of India and he arrives at the venue escorted by President’s Body Guards (PBG). The commander of the PBG asks his contingent to give a national salute followed by the singing of the National anthem. The military bands play some of the most popular tunes like “Abide With Me” and “Saare Jahan Se Acchaha” among others.
Beating the Retreat Ceremony 2022 Special
- There were 60 buglers in total including 60 drummers, 17 trumpet players from all the military forces.
- There were 25 bands of Rajput Regiment, 7 bands of Gorakh Regiment and 19 bands of Bihar regiment were part of this year’s beating the retreat ceremony.
- This year the new composition – Swarnim Vijay was played for the first time on and it was composed by Lieutenant colonel Vimal Joshi and Havildar Jiwan.
- 'Swarnim Vijay' composition was played on the occasion of completing 50 years of Victory of 1971 war over Pakistan.
- ‘Bharat Ke Jawan’, Sare Jahan Se Acha, and few more new compositions like Bharat Vandana were played in the ceremony in the presence of honorable President and Prime Minister of India.
Complete List of Republic Day Chief Guests from 1950 to 2023
I have tried my best to give you a year-wise list of Chief Guests of Republic Day, ever since the first Republic Day celebration in 1950. The list contains the name of the Chief Guest, his/her country and the year of invitation.
|2023||President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi||Arab Republic of Egypt|
|2021||Prime Minister Boris Johnson||UK|
|2020||President Jair Bolsonaro||Brazil|
|2019||Cyril Ramaphosa||South Africa|
|2018|| Sultan and incumbent Prime Minister, Hassanal Bolkiah|
Prime Minister, Hun Sen
President, Joko Widodo
Prime Minister, Thongloun Sisoulith
Prime Minister, Najib Razak
President, Htin Kyaw
President, Rodrigo Roa Duterte
President, Halimah Yacob
Prime Minister, Prayuth Chan-ocha
Prime Minister, Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
|2017||Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan||Abu Dhabi|
|2016||President, Francois Hollande||France|
|2015||President, Barack Obama||USA|
|2014||Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe||Japan|
|2013||King, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck||Bhutan|
|2012||Prime minister, Yingluck Shinawatra||Thailand|
|2011||President, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono||Indonesia|
|2010||President, Lee Myung Bak||Republic of Korea|
|2009||President, Nursultan Nazarbayev||Kazakhstan|
|2008||President, Nicolas Sarkozy||France|
|2007||President, Vladimir Putin||Russia|
|2006||King, Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud||Saudi Arabia|
|2005||King, Jigme Singye Wangchuck||Bhutan|
|2004||President, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva||Brazil|
|2003||President, Mohammed Khatami||Iran|
|2002||President, Cassam Uteem||Mauritius|
|2001||President, Abdelaziz Bouteflika||Algeria|
|2000||President, Olusegun Obasanjo||Nigeria|
|1999||King, Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev||Nepal|
|1998||President, Jacques Chirac||France|
|1997||Prime Minister, Basdeo Panday||Trinidad and Tobago|
|1996||President, Dr. Fernando Henrique Cardoso||Brazil|
|1995||President, Nelson Mandela||South Africa|
|1994||Prime Minister, Goh Chok Tong||Singapore|
|1993||Prime Minister, John Major||United Kingdom|
|1992||President, Mário Soares||Portugal|
|1991||President, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom||Maldives|
|1990||Prime Minister, Anerood Jugnauth||Mauritius|
|1989||General Secretary, Nguyen Van Linh||Vietnam|
|1988||President, Junius Jayewardene||Sri Lanka|
|1987||President, Alan Garcia||Peru|
|1986||Prime Minister, Andreas Papandreou||Greece|
|1985||President, Raúl Alfonsín||Argentina|
|1984||King, Jigme Singye Wangchuck||Bhutan|
|1983||President, Shehu Shagari||Nigeria|
|1982||King, Juan Carlos I||Spain|
|1981||President, Jose Lopez Portillo||Mexico|
|1980||President, Valéry Giscard d’Estaing||France|
|1979||Prime Minister, Malcolm Fraser||Australia|
|1978||President, Patrick Hillery||Ireland|
|1977||First Secretary, Edward Gierek||Poland|
|1976||Prime Minister, Jacques Chirac||France|
|1975||President, Kenneth Kaunda||Zambia|
|1974||President, Josip Broz Tito||Yugoslavia|
|1974||Prime Minister, Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike||Sri Lanka|
|1973||President, Mobutu Sese Seko||Zaire|
|1972||Prime Minister, Seewoosagur Ramgoolam||Mauritius|
|1971||President, Julius Nyerere||Tanzania|
|1970||King of the Belgians Baudouin||Belgium|
|1969||Prime Minister, Todor Zhivkov||Bulgaria|
|1968||Prime Minister, Alexei Kosygin||Soviet Union|
|1968||President, Josip Broz Tito||Yugoslavia|
|1967||King Mohammed Zahir Shah||Afghanistan|
|1965||Food and Agriculture Minister, Rana Abdul Hamid||Pakistan|
|1964||Chief of Defence Staff, Lord Louis Mountbatten||United Kingdom|
|1963||King, Norodom Sihanouk||Cambodia|
|1962||Prime Minister, Viggo Kampmann||Denmark|
|1961||Queen, Elizabeth II||United Kingdom|
|1960||President, Kliment Voroshilov||Soviet Union|
|1959||Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip||United Kingdom|
|1958||Marshall Ye Jianying||People’s Republic of China|
|1957||Minister of Defence Georgy Zhukov||Soviet Union|
|1956||Chancellor of the Exchequer, R. A. Butler Chief Justice, Kōtarō Tanaka||United Kingdom Japan|
|1955||Governor General, Malik Ghulam Muhammad||Pakistan|
|1954||King, Jigme Dorji Wangchuck||Bhutan|
|1951||King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Singh||Nepal|