Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense Definition and Examples

Past Perfect Tense is used to describe actions that happened in the past either a long time ago or in the near past. It is also used to describe actions of the near past that have been completed or remain incomplete with reference to another activity. Carefully go through the below sentences.

  • He had given me his book.
  • I had gone to the market.
  • I had gone to the college when it happened.

The above sentences describe an action which has occurred in the past, it could have occurred in the near past or few months or even few years back.

  • She had given me her number an year back.
  • He had left the school before the principal came.
  • They had given him a great applause for his achievements.

In the first sentence above the speaker is talking about an incident which has occurred an year back while the second sentence attaches a condition with the action being talked about. i.e. –‘He had left the school’ (action)’before (relative time) the principal came in (condition).’

All the above examples determine Past Perfect Tense in Positive forms. Sentences in Past Perfect Tense can also be written in Negative and Interrogative forms as well. Though we will go through their details in the following exercises we will also understand it with few examples of each here.

Below sentences represent Negative sentences in Past Perfect Tense-

  • She had not gone to school.
  • He had not prepared his speech.
  • They had not opened the gate.
  • It had not started working before the mechanic came.
  • We had not sold our house to anyone.

Few examples of Interrogative sentences in Past Perfect Tense-

  • Had she gone to school?
  • Had they sold their house?
  • Had he gone to the doctor?
  • Had she visited her grandparents?
  • Had they taken precaution as advised by the officer?

Carefully going through all the three types of Past Perfect Tense sentences it is evident that the auxiliary verb used in all the forms is ‘had’ and the third form of verb (Past Participle) is used i.e. gone, given, prepared etc.

In the following exercises we will go through all the three forms of sentences in Past Perfect Tense with help of suitable formula and exercise

a) Positive Sentences

Structure/Formula for Positive Sentences in Past Perfect Tense Forms

The basic structure/formula for positive sentences represented in Past Perfect Tense is –

  • (subject + auxiliary verb (had) + third form of verb (past participle) + object)

 

Rules for Positive Sentences in Past Perfect Tense Forms

The rules for writing Positive Sentences in Past Perfect Forms are simple as described by the structural formula. The sentence usually starts with the subject i.e. - he, she, it, they, we, you, I, singular or plural nouns. There is only one auxiliary verb used and that is – ‘had’; it should immediately follow the subject. Furthermore, Past Participle or third form of verb is used such as- gone, given, baked, barked etc. followed by the Object at last. The object as usual may be simple or could specify a condition or an action. Below given are few examples of Positive Sentences in Past Perfect Tense-

  • He had drunk milk in breakfast.
  • She had lost her precious jewelry.
  • The king had proclaimed his youngest son as heir to the throne.
  • They had run out of necessary resources before the supplies came.(‘run ‘ is an irregular verb)
  • Principal had given his approval for the annual functions.
  • The chairman had resigned following the allegations.
  • She had come to the college yesterday.
  • We had arrived on time.

Now we will go through some complex sentences and understand their formation with respect to Past Perfect Tense. A complex sentence has two parts – an event described by another event occurring in the past. Go through the following complex sentences-

  • They had run out of necessary resources before the supplies came in.

In the sentence the first condition is written in ‘Past Perfect Tense’ while the second is written in ‘Simple Past Tense’. Interestingly the above relative sentences can both be written in past forms as-

  • They ran out of necessary resources before the supplies came in.

The above statement constitutes two events expressed in simple past tense joined by a conjunction ‘before’ which tells us the sequence of occurrence i.e. what happened first.

  • I had done my homework after I came back from the market.( Past Perfect + Simple Past)
  • I did my homework after I had come back from the market. ( Simple Past + Past Perfect)
  • I did my home work after I came back from the market. ( Simple Past Tense + Simple Past Tense)

Therefore complex sentences can be expressed as combination of Past Perfect and Simple Past or only Simple Past Tense sentences with use of conjunctions i.e.- after, before, when etc.

 

Exercises/Worksheets/Activities on Positive Past Perfect Tense Sentences with Answers

Fill in the Blanks Exercises/Worksheets/Activities on Positive Past Perfect Tense Sentences with Answers:

Complete the below sentences with suitable words (auxiliary verbs or past participle verb form) so as they represent Past Perfect Tense in positive form. Cross check your progress with the answers provided at the end of the exercise. You can take the help of the verb hints wherever provided.

1) I _________ read the book twice.

2) She had _________ her book to the library. (give)

3) The Cow had ___________ in the field __________ the dusk. (graze)

4) They ______ arrived on time for the meeting.

5) He had already ___________ the authorities about the incident. (inform)

6) When she opened the door she remembered that she ________ left her purse in the car.

7) He had ___________ the needy whenever it was possible for him. (help)

8) They ________ hidden the treasure deep in the ocean.

9) He had _____________ his soft skills. (improve)

10) They had __________ the priest for a supper. (invite)

11) She had __________ beautifully in the concert. (sing)

12) I had ___________ for ten hours that night. (sleep)

13) The flight ________ left before they __________ at the airport. (arrived)

14) Children had _________ to school after the bus ___________. (go, arrive)

15) She _________ finished cooking ___________ she started washing clothes.

16) We ________ apologized for our mistake.

17) We had __________ the boarding passes before ___________ the plane. (collect, board)

18) The children had __________ for an extended play time. (request)

19) The train had _________ on time. (arrive)

20) He _________ finished his studies.

Answers- 1)had, 2)given, 3)grazed, before, 4)had, 5)informed, 6)had, 7)helped, 8)had, 9)improved, 10)invited, 11)sung, 12)slept, 13)had, arrived 14)gone, arrived, 15)had, before, 16)had, 17)collected , boarding, 18)requested, 19)arrived, 20)had

MCQ Exercises/Worksheets/Activities on Positive Sentences in Past Perfect Tense

Choose the most appropriate word from the choices given so as to make the sentence positive in Past Perfect form. Verify your progress with the answers provided at the end of the exercise.

1) They _________ assumed his as their leader.

  1. a) had
  2. b) have
  3. c) has

2) She had ___________ her grievances to the poor family.

  1. a) convey
  2. b) conveys
  3. c) conveyed

3) He ___________ donated his books to the library.

  1. a) have
  2. b) had
  3. c) has

4) The previous principal had ________ less importance to extracurricular activities.

  1. a) gave
  2. b) gives
  3. c) given

5) The gentleman _______ obliged by sending a thank you note.

  1. a) had
  2. b) have
  3. c) has

6) The officer had ______________ a medal for his bravery.

  1. a) receive
  2. b) received
  3. c) receives

7) The glass had __________ out of my hand onto the table.

  1. a) slipped
  2. b) slip
  3. c) slips

8) The miscreants _________ left the place before the police __________.

  1. a) has, arrive
  2. b) had, arrives
  3. c) had, arrived

9) She had __________ well for the finals.

  1. a) prepare
  2. b) prepares
  3. c) prepared

10) The train we _________ waiting for had __________ on time.

  1. a) are, has
  2. b) were, arrived
  3. c) were, arrive

11) People _________ always _____________ their traditions.

  1. a) have, preserve
  2. b) has, protected
  3. c) had, preserved

12) The crew _________ apologized for the inconvenience.

  1. a) has
  2. b) had
  3. c) have

13) The Sun _________  set in the West.

  1. a) has
  2. b) have
  3. c) had

14) We had ___________ New York before the ___________ of dawn.

  1. a) reach, arrive
  2. b) reached, arrival
  3. c) reached, arrived

15) He had ___________ the management for the changes in class schedule.

  1. a) convinced
  2. b) convince
  3. c) convinces

16) He _______ always __________ on time for the meeting.

  1. a) has, arrived
  2. b) has, arrive
  3. c) had, arrived

17) He had __________ a lot of respect as a teacher.

  1. a) earned
  2. b) earns
  3. c) earn

18) They had ____________ a new home.

  1. a) brought
  2. b) bought
  3. c) bring

19) We had ____________ in the best hotel in town.

  1. a) stay
  2. b) stays
  3. c) stayed

20) Thief had ___________ much to attract attention from authorities.

  1. a) stolen
  2. b) steal
  3. c) steals

Answers- 1)a, 2)c, 3)b, 4)c, 5)a, 6)b, 7)a, 8)c, 9)c, 10)b, 11)c, 12)b, 13)c, 14)b, 15)a, 16)c, 17)a, 18)b, 19)c, 20)a

True or False Exercises/Worksheets/Activities on Positive Past Perfect Tense Sentences:

Determine whether the following sentences are true or false and also find the corrected sentences in the answers provided at the end of the exercise.

1) He has written a letter to the principal.

2) They have informed the hostel warden.

3) He had completed his work.

4) They had receive a cash prize.

5) It has creates trouble in the past.

6) We had gone to New York.

7) They have leave their house a couple of years back.

8) The bird had flew before I saw it.

9) The jury had convinced the judge.

10) People from different backgrounds has join hands to fight for their freedom.

11) The man had evoked suspicion.

12) People have given him a warm welcome.

13) Cat had drank all the milk.

14) We had driven quite fast from the place.

15) They have earning enough for a living.

Answers- 1)False, 2)False, 3)True, 4)False, 5)False, 6)True, 7)False, 8)False, 9)True, 10)False, 11)True, 12)False, 13)False, 14)True, 15)False

Please check your answers with the corrected sentences given below:

1) He had written a letter to the principal.

2) They had informed the hostel warden.

4) They had received a cash prize.

5) It had created trouble in the past.

7) They had left their house a couple of years back.

8) The bird had flown before I saw it.

10) People from different backgrounds had joined hands to fight for their freedom.

12) People had given him a warm welcome.

13) Cat had drunk all the milk.

15) They had earned enough for a living.

b) Negative Sentences

Structure/Formula for Negative Sentences in Past Perfect Form:

Structure/Formula for Negative Sentences in Past Perfect Form is-

  • (subject + auxiliary verb + Not + past participle verb + object)

Rules for Negative Sentences in Past Perfect Form:

There is no change in the auxiliary verb as it remains the same – i.e. ‘had’. The verb form also remains unaltered – i.e. the third form or Past Participle form. The only exception is that a ‘not’ is inserted between the auxiliary verb and the main verb, which negates the whole sentence.

Consider the below written sentences-

  • He had gone to the market. ( Affirmative)
  • He had not gone to the market. ( Negative)
  • She had exposed the crime. ( Affirmative)
  • She had not exposed the crime. ( Negative)
  • He had colluded with the accused. ( Affirmative)
  • He had not colluded with the accused. ( Negative)

Some more examples of Negative Past Perfect Tense-

  • They had not studied for the exams.
  • They had not received the payment.
  • She had not corrected the mistake.
  • We had not arrived there before the train came.
  • He had not allowed the class to go on picnic.

The above sentences are negative sentences in Past Perfect Forms.

C) Negative- Interrogative Sentences

The Negative sentences in Past Perfect form may be converted into Negative- Interrogative sentences by making simple modifications as given below.

1) By adding ‘Why’ and other question words.

For the simplicity of understanding we will consider the above examples as discussed in Negative Sentences-

  • Why he had not gone to the market?
  • Why she had not exposed the crime?
  • How he had colluded with the accused?
  • Why they had not studied for the exams?
  • How we had not arrived there before the train came?
  • Why he had not allowed the class to go on picnic?

The places of auxiliary verbs and subjects can be interchanged as given below-

  • Why had he not gone to the market?
  • Why had she not exposed the crime?
  • How had he colluded with the accused?
  • Why had they not studied for the exams?
  • How had we not arrived there before the train came?
  • Why had he not allowed the class to go on picnic?

2) By interchanging the places of Auxiliary Verbs and Subject.

Negative sentences in Past Perfect form can be directly converted into Negative Interrogative sentences by simply interchanging the places of auxiliary verb and subject as shown in the examples below-

  • He had not gone to the market. ( Negative)
  • Had he not gone to the market? (Negative-Interrogative)
  • She had not exposed the crime. (Negative)
  • Had she not exposed the crime? (Negative-Interrogative)
  • He had not colluded with the accused. (Negative)
  • Had he not colluded with the accused? (Negative- Interrogative)

It is clear from the above examples that by simply interchanging the places of auxiliary verb ‘had’ and the subject, a Negative Sentence in Past Perfect Form could be converted into Negative-Interrogative sentence.

Exercises/Worksheet/Activities on Negative Past Perfect Tense Sentences

Fill in the Blanks Exercises/Worksheets/Activities on Negative Past Perfect Tense Sentences:

Complete the below sentences by using appropriate words so that they represent a Negative sentence in Past Perfect form. Verify your progress with the answers provided at the end of the exercise. Take the help of the verb hints wherever provided.

1) He ________ not ___________ the letter. (get)

2) She had ___________ complained about the food.

3) They had ____________ inspected the class before examinations ___________. (begin)

4) We had __________ received the bonus last year.

5) She __________ not ___________ me her book when we met. (give)

6) He had not _____________ the management about the incident. (inform)

7) She had ___________got approval for a week’s leave.

8) I had not ________ to my ancestral village during vacations. (go)

9) They were ___________ because they had ___________ obeyed the law. (fine)

10) She had not ___________ her dress to anyone. (give)

11) It had ___________ travelled faster than other modes of transportation.

12) The thieves had not _________ from the scene. (flee)

13) People ________ not ___________ to discuss social issues. (gather)

14) He had not ____________ his roots. (forgot)

15) She had __________ got her purse.

16) He was sad because his friends __________ not _____________ him in need. (help)

17) The bullock had not ___________ the green and soft grass. (graze)

18) The children had _________ played yesterday.

19) We __________ not seen him on any occasion.

20) I had not ___________ for money. (ask)

Answers- 1)had, got, 2)not, 3)not, began, 4)not, 5)had, given, 6)informed, 7)not, 8)gone, 9)fined, not, 10)given, 11)not, 12)fled, 13)had, gathered, 14)forgotten, 15)not, 16)had, helped, 17)grazed, 18)not, 19)had, 20)asked

MCQ Exercises/Worksheets/Activities on Negative Past Perfect Tense Sentences:

Choose the correct word from the choices given so as to make a negative sentence in Past Perfect form and also cross check your progress with the answers provided at the end.

1) They had ___________ conceived anything stupid.

  1. a) never
  2. b) not
  3. c) ever

2) She _________ not written any book on social causes.

  1. a) had
  2. b) has
  3. c) have

3) I had not __________ well last year.

  1. a) play
  2. b) plays
  3. c) played

4) The participants _________ not _____________ the judges.

  1. a) has, impress
  2. b) had, impressed
  3. c) have, impressed

5) Students had not ___________ much in the fest.

  1. a) enjoy
  2. b) enjoyed
  3. c) enjoying

6) Teacher had not ___________ the students to talk.

  1. a) allowed
  2. b) allows
  3. c) allow

7) They ________ not ____________ dinner when the guests ______________.

  1. a) have, eaten, arrived
  2. b) had, eaten, arrive
  3. c) had, eaten, arrived

8) He had not __________ the medal.

  1. a) get
  2. b) got
  3. c) given

9) They had not ____________ at the joke.

  1. a) laugh
  2. b) laughed
  3. c) laughs

10) He had not _________the candle.

  1. a) lit
  2. b) lighted
  3. c) lighting

12) It had not ____________ from its place.

  1. a) move
  2. b) moving
  3. c) moved

13) Ice cream had not ___________ before we ________ it.

  1. a) melted, ate
  2. b) melts, eat
  3. c) melted, eat

14) He _________ not __________ the girl he loved.

  1. a) has, marry
  2. b) had, marrying
  3. c) had, married

15) They had not ___________ into their new home.

  1. a) move
  2. b) moved
  3. c) moving

16) He had not ___________ the door.

  1. a) open
  2. b) opening
  3. c) opened

17) I had not _________ to hurt you.

  1. a) meant
  2. b) mean
  3. c) means

18) He had not ____________ the electricity bill.

  1. a) pay
  2. b) paid
  3. c) paying

19) He ________ not ___________ any tree in the garden.

  1. a) had, planted
  2. b) has, planted
  3. c) has, planting

20) The officer had not ____________ the incident even when he could have.

  1. a) prevent
  2. b) preventing
  3. c) prevented

Answers- 1)b, 2)a, 3)c, 4)b, 5)b, 6)a,7)c, 8)b, 9)b, 10)a, 11)c, 12)c, 13)a, 14)c, 15)b, 16)c, 17)a, 18)b, 19)a, 20)c

True or False Exercises/Worksheets/Activities on Negative Past Perfect Tense Sentences:

Determine whether the following sentences are true or false and also verify your answers with those provided at the end of the exercise.

1) He had not married last year.

2) She has not received the consignment on time.

3) They had not travelled by train.

4) I have not give my book to anyone.

5) She had not called you.

6) They have not informed about their arrival.

7) It had not performed as expected.

8) She has never applied for any job.

9) He had not visited me.

10) I have not eat the dinner.

11) We had not bought a new car.

12) They have not bring a new house.

13) He had not warned others.

14) She had not love animals.

15) He had not got his ticket from the agent.

Answers- 1)True, 2)False, 3)True, 4)False, 5)True, 6)False, 7)True, 8)False, 9)True, 10)False, 11)True, 12)False, 13)True, 14)False, 15)True

Please crosscheck your answers with the corrected sentences given below:

2) She had not received the consignment on time.

4) I had not given my book to anyone.

6) They had not informed about their arrival.

8) She had never applied for any job.

10) I had not eaten the dinner.

12) They had not bought a new house.

14) She had not loved animals.

d) Interrogative Sentences

Structure/Formula for Interrogative Sentences in Past Perfect Form

The Structure/Formula for Interrogative sentences in Past Perfect Tense form is-

  • (auxiliary verb + subject + main verb + object)

Rules for Interrogative Sentences in Past Perfect Form

Auxiliary verb used remains same as in positive and negative sentences- i.e. ‘had’. Also, the past participle or third form of main verb is used and the sentences should start with the auxiliary verb in the beginning. Consider the following examples of interrogative sentences in the Past Perfect form-

  • Had he written the letter?
  • Had she done a good job?
  • Had they informed the teacher?
  • Had he opened the door when you knocked?
  • Had she caught the thief on her own?
  • Had I prepared enough for the exams?
  • Had she praised herself on achieving good grades?
  • Had she called you?
  • Had they informed her?
  • Had she given you food before you left?

All of the above sentences are interrogative irrespective of whether they are simple or complex.

Interrogative – Negative Sentences in Past Perfect Form

The interrogative sentences above can be converted in to Interrogative – Negative sentences by placing ‘not, in between the auxiliary verb and the subject as given below-

  • Had he not written the letter?
  • Had she not done a good job?
  • Had they not informed the teacher?
  • Had he not opened the door when you knocked?
  • Had she not caught the thief on her own?
  • Had I not prepared enough for the exams?
  • Had she not praised herself on achieving good grades?
  • Had she not called you?
  • Had they not informed her?
  • Had she not given you food before you left?

Adding ‘Why’ And Other Question Words

Please note that the above Interrogative and Interrogative- Negative sentences may be prefixed with Question Words, as given below-

  • Why had he written the letter?
  • Why had he not written the letter? Or Why he had not written the letter?
  • How had they informed the teacher?
  • Why had they not informed the teacher? Or Why they had not informed the teacher?
  • How had she caught the thief on her own?
  • Why had she not caught the thief on her own? Or Why she had not caught the thief on her own?

Also by just interchanging the positions of auxiliary verb and subject, an interrogative sentence can be converted into a simple Past Perfect Tense Positive form as shown below-

  • Had he written the letter? ( Interrogative)
  • He had written the letter.( Positive)
  • Had she done a good job? ( Interrogative)
  • She had done a good job.( Positive)
  • Had she called you?( Interrogative)
  • She had called you. ( Positive)

Exercises/Worksheets/Activities on Interrogative Past Perfect Tense

Fill in the Blanks Exercises/Worksheet/Activities on Interrogative Past Perfect Tense-

Complete the following sentences with suitable words so as to represent them in interrogative Past Perfect forms. Crosscheck your answers with that provided at the end of the exercise. Take the help of the verb hint wherever provided.

1) ________ he informed you?

2) Had she __________ you? (call)

3) Had they ___________ the auditorium after the function? (leave)

4) Had I ____________ my skills? (improve)

5) _________ she conveyed the message when __________ to do so. (ask)

6) _________ they ___________ the plane on time? (board)

7) Had he ____________ his arrival? (confirm)

8) ___________ the students __________ their exams well? (write)

9) Had she ____________ for more than 100 kilometers? (drive)

10) Had you ever ______________ using a parachute? (jump)

11) ________ they conspired to get him out of power?

12) _________ she ___________ ice cream for the kids? (prepare)

13) _________ she __________ the whole incident to her friends? (narrate)

14) _________ she decided?

15) Had he ____________ for the tests? (prepare)

16) Had they __________ their old house and bought a new one? (sell)

17) ________ you ___________ your book to anyone? (give)

18) Has _________ cooked the dinner?

19) Had he ___________ his lunch? (eaten)

20) Had you ___________ in the party? (dance)

Answer- 1)had, 2)called, 3)left, 4)improved, 5)had, asked, 6)had, boarded, 7)confirmed, 8)had, written, 9)driven, 10)jumped, 11)had, 12)had, prepared, 13)had, narrated, 14)had, 15)prepared,16)sold, 17)had, given, 18)he/she, 19)eaten, 20)danced

MCQs Exercises/Worksheets/Activities on Interrogative Past Perfect Sentences:

Complete the given sentences by choosing appropriate choices given so as to make the sentences interrogative in Past Perfect Tense. Verify you progress with the answers given at the end.

1) Had they ___________ the transfer certificates before getting admission?

  1. a) get
  2. b) got
  3. c) given

2) Had your friends __________ you on your birthday?

  1. a) call
  2. b) calling
  3. c) called

3) Had she ____________ her work?

  1. a) completed
  2. b) complete
  3. c) completing

4) ________ he _____________ your plans?

  1. a) has, approved
  2. b) had, approves
  3. c) had, approved

5) Had he __________ you?

  1. a) bother
  2. b) bothered
  3. c) bothering

6) _______ she __________ the dishes?

  1. a) had, prepared
  2. b) has, prepare
  3. c) has, prepared

7) Had the children ____________ to the teacher?

  1. a) listen
  2. b) listened
  3. c) listening

8) ______ she _________ the plants?

  1. a) has, watered
  2. b) had, watered
  3. c) has , watering

9) Had the principal __________ his approval?

  1. a) give
  2. b) gave
  3. c) given

10) Had the train _________ on time?

  1. a) arrive
  2. b) arrived
  3. c) arriving

11) ________ the plane landed?

  1. a) has
  2. b) had
  3. c) have

12) Had the guests __________ on time?

  1. a) eaten
  2. b) eat
  3. c) ate

13) Had she ___________ her mistakes?

  1. a) correct
  2. b) corrected
  3. c) corrects

14) Had he ___________ in the postal department?

  1. a) work
  2. b) working
  3. c) worked

15) Had the land __________ good crop?

  1. a) yielded
  2. b) yields
  3. c) yielding

16) ________ the nomads ____________ animals?

  1. a) have, worship
  2. b) had, worshipped
  3. c) had , worshiping

17) Had they ____________ the match?

  1. a) win
  2. b) winning
  3. c) won

18) Had he ____________ for them?

  1. a) waited
  2. b) wait
  3. c) waiting

19) Had he ___________ for miles to reach his school?

  1. a) walk
  2. b) walked
  3. c) walking

20) Had she ____________ the utensils?

  1. a) washed
  2. b) wash
  3. c) washing

Answers- 1)b, 2)c, 3)a, 4)c, 5)b, 6)a, 7)b, 8)b, 9)c, 10)b, 11)b,12)a, 13)b, 14)c, 15)a, 16)b, 17)c, 18)a, 19)b,20)a

True or False Exercises/Worksheet/Activities on Interrogative Past Perfect Tense:

Determine whether the following sentences are true or false. Also check out the corrected version in the answers given at the end of the exercise.

1) Had he wander in the forest before finding a way out?

2) Had they wasted their prize money?

3) Had she watch him going?

4) Had he wept for her?

5) Has they remember the lesson?

6) Had they used all the resources?

7) Have they touch the feet of the priest?

8) Had she waited for too long?

9) Had he trust her more than himself?

10) Had he seen her teaching the kids?

11) Have I tie the branch with a rope?

12) Had they understood the lesson?

13) Had he approach the authorities?

14) Had she used your pen?

15) Had they try to approach you?

Answers- 1)False, 2)True, 3)False, 4)True, 5)False, 6)True, 7)False, 8)True, 9)False, 10)True, 11)False, 12)True, 13)False,14)True, 15)False

Crosscheck your answers with the corrected sentences provided below:

1) Had he wandered in the forest before finding a way out?

3) Had she watched him going?

5) Had they remembered the lesson?

7) Had they touched the feet of the priest?

9) Had he trusted her more than himself?

11) Had I tied the branch with a rope?

13) Had he approached the authorities?

15) Had they tried to approach you?

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