Water Pollution Essay

After air; water is the most vital resource for all the known forms of life. It is also rightly said that “Water is Life” and without water we can’t imagine the sustenance of life on this planet. Though water is life but still millions of people get killed by drinking this vital resource. Water gets contaminated by the increasing water pollution which is responsible for killing more people than terrorism and violence had killed.

Sample Essay on Water Pollution for Students

1100 Words Essay


We all know how crucial is water for our survival yet we tend to pollute it on a larger extent. Water gets polluted mainly by the human activities and in turn it not only affects humans but also other innocent species of our ecosystem. The sources of drinking water are very limited and only 1% of water on earth is available for drinking but knowing this fact we are diminishing the limited sources of water by polluting them. Let us discuss Water Pollution and understand how we tend to pollute it and in course how it is affecting our health.

Water Pollution

Water in its raw form is mostly pure and safe for drinking; it is the mixing of pollutants which makes it polluted, dirty and contaminated making it unsafe for drinking. Water gets polluted when substances like toxic chemicals, human excreta, sewage from houses and factories get mixed with it degrading its quality. The polluted water is not only unsafe for drinking but it also affects the aquatic animals in lakes and rivers since most of the sewage and drainage empties in rivers and lakes. Let us know in detail who and what is responsible for the water pollution.

Causes of Water Pollution

Water gets polluted from many sources and usually by human activities. Apart from the industrial and household drainage system, religious beliefs and rituals also tend to pollute our holy rivers. Following are the main causes of water pollution:

  • Industrial Sewage

Industrial sewage system which empties in lakes and river are majorly responsible for the water pollution. The waste products of industries contain a large amount of toxic elements, harmful chemicals and heavy metals. Mostly the industrial wastes are not treated and they are directly disposed off in the water bodies. As water is a universal solvent these substances readily dissolve in water and degrade its quality making it unsuitable for drinking purposes and also affecting the aquatic species.

  • Household Drainage System

The sudden increase in urbanization has lead to the improper waste management system which has also added to water pollution. The household drainage systems in cities are connected to rivers and lakes which in turn pollute these water bodies and also pose a risk of epidemics. The household sewage mainly contains pathogens, detergents, oils, medicines etc. which contaminates water and make it toxic.

  • Religious Rituals and Activities

Apart from industrial and household drainage, our holy rivers like Ganga are getting polluted due to the waste of religious rituals and dead body remains. According to religious beliefs the ashes of the dead should be immersed in Ganga to attain salvation. The flowers, pots, ashes and other materials are immersed in holy rivers which in turn are polluting them. The water of the rivers which were considered sacred is now highly polluted due to these activities. Immersing of idols in lakes and rivers are also responsible for water pollution.

  • Pesticides and Fertilizers

Pesticides and Fertilizers used in agriculture activities not only affect the surface water but these chemicals gradually seep in the ground and contaminate the ground water also. These pesticides and fertilizers washed from the farms during heavy rains and mixes with lakes and rivers making them toxic.

Effects of Water Pollution

Water pollution not only affects us but also deteriorates the condition of natural flora and fauna. Following are the effects of the water pollution:

  • Affects on Human Health

Drinking contaminated water can lead to severe health effects. There are many water-borne diseases caused due to consumption of water infected by pathogens. It may cause diseases like Cholera, Typhoid, Dysentery, Hepatitis and also liver and kidney damage etc. Drinking water contaminated with heavy metals like arsenic may cause Arsenic Poisoning leading to heart disease and cancer.

  • Effects on Agricultural Yields

Apart from fertilizers and pesticides polluting rivers and lakes vice versa is also possible. The polluted water if used for irrigation purposes not only reduces the agricultural yields but the toxic elements get absorbed by the crops and make it unsuitable for consumption.

  • Affects on Aquatic Species

The industrial waste contains heavy metals and toxic elements which kills aquatic species and also changes their hormonal activities leading to behavioral changes. There are many incidents where large number of whales, crabs, fishes and other marine animals get killed by the pollutants and wind up on the beaches.

  • Eutrophication

Certain industrial pollutants help the excessive growth of plants and algae in water bodies. This process is called as Eutrophication. This depletes the level of oxygen in the water which in turn kills fishes and other aquatic animals disrupting the food chain and in course destroying our ecosystem.

Prevention of Water Pollution

Water pollution has already killed millions of people across the globe. Dealing with water pollution requires the participation of every individual from the society. Here are the few things which could be done to stop further pollution of our water bodies:

  • Proper Waste Disposal System

A proper waste disposal mechanism has to be developed so that the industrial and household waste does not directly get disposed in our water bodies. It should be first treated and all the impurities, chemicals and toxins should be neutralized and then only it has to be disposed in lakes and rivers. By doing this we will not only keep our water sources clean but it will also help in creating a healthy ecosystem.

  • Avoiding Religious Rituals and Immersing Idols

The remains from the religious rituals should not be immersed in the rivers and should be properly disposed. Throwing of flowers, pots, coconut shells in rivers should be strictly prohibited. Though many campaigns and projects are already going on to clean our holy rivers but still it has a long way to go and without the public support it is not going to succeed. The idols of goddess Durga and Ganesha should be made with eco-friendly materials, so that immersing them in lakes and rivers does not cause the ecological imbalance.

  • Use of Natural Fertilizers

Government should promote the use the natural fertilizers instead of chemical ones. This will highly reduce the contamination of ground and surface water. The bio-fertilizers are completely natural and safe for the soil microbes hence promoting better yield without any side effects. The usage of pesticides should be avoided and used only when no options are available.    

  • Sanitizing Our Surroundings

It is very important for us to clean and sanitize our surroundings. This is one of the measures which we as an individual can contribute to prevent water pollution. We should be vigilant about our surroundings and our city so that no one could make it dirty. Draining of chemicals, medicines, oil, grease etc. in the sewage system should be completely stopped.


Water is so important that many space agencies are on expedition to search water on other planets because they believe if there is water there will be life. The water pollution has become so serious that WHO had to layout principles for the effective management of water resources and define policies and strategies for water pollution control.

The unified action of government and society is required to curb out the issue of water pollution and make clean water available to the marginal and lower sections of the society.

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