Science Essay

The word science is derived from Latin word Scientia meaning “Knowledge”. Science is a study of natural and physical objects and finding out new ways for their improvement through constant observation, research and experimentation. Anything that we see or use has a scientific angle involved. Science is behind every invention and has an explanation for everything living or non living.

Long Essay on Science in English

A long essay on science is given below describing science in detail. You can have a look on this science essay to get help in your study:

Long Essay on Science (1500 words)


Word science is derived from the Latin word Scientia meaning “Knowledge”. It refers to the knowledge of anything living or non living. Science is applied when simple tools like screws, levers and pulleys are combined to form complex equipments like wheel barrow, wind mills and clocks. Science explains the movement of earth and formation of days and nights. Science is omnipresent and has an explanation for something as simple as lighting a candle to the incessant burning of Sun for nearly 5 billion years. It is an ongoing process of observation, experiment and research to satisfy human’s inquisitiveness on a particular subject and to find out new ways for improvement.

Evolution of Science

“Evolution of science” is a misleading statement as science was there even before the evolution of life on Earth. Science was behind the” Big bang” leading to the formation of our celestial system. It was responsible for existence of water on earth and other necessary elements that support life. The ever first living microbe on earth nearly 4 billion years ago was formed because of absorbing heat from the sun-a process which can be well explained by science. Though the primitive men remained unaware of science and its applications, sometime around Upper Paleolithic (Nearly 50000 years ago) they started using simple tools like spears and needles.

Followed by the invention of fire and wheels in the following years and their application for various purposes. Thus started a never ending human quest for improvement through constant observation and experiments. Early humans had no explanation for celestial occurrences like lunar and solar eclipse, giving birth to irrelevant mythological explanations. But some civilizations started recording the occurrences and through constant observation they eventually realized that these were timed and periodic incidents.

The Babylonian priests were the firsts to introduce Babylonian science during 1800 BCE. Babylonians made commendable advancements in the field of celestial science and they professed that terrestrial events are only possible by movement of heavenly bodies. By 700 BC they knew that solar eclipses could only be possible during new moon and lunar eclipses only during full moon. Further sciences like astronomy and mathematics were encouraged by ancient Egyptians. Pyramids stand as testimony to their highly developed mathematical skills. During 1650 BCE they have developed methods for calculating area as well as solving algebraic equations of the first degree.

In India some aspects of astronomical science are found in the Vedas (composed between 1500 to 1000 BCE), where the division of year into months, six seasons of the year and respective positions of celestial bodies were observed and documented. Likewise many civilizations around the world made their respective progresses in the field of science- China developed geometry for calculating areas and algebra was imported from India.


The science of today has been developed through centuries of observations, research and experiments for making advancements in the respective fields. After having understood the evolution of science, we must now move to its advantages.

Advantages of Science

Science has the potential to change the course of history by changing civilizations. The civilization which implemented science in different fields was way ahead of others- economically and socially. Few advantages of science and its implication in various fields are given below-

  • Removes superstitions

One of the most important advantages of science is that it removes superstitions, by providing logic and reason. Nomadic humans thought of natural events like lightening, thunder storms to be some supernatural occurrences and as a spell of wrath by some superpower and started praying to some imaginary God to please him. Due to slow but persistent development of science they finally understood that those are actually natural events, with no supernatural element. Likewise superstitions about lunar and solar eclipses were removed when science gave a reason for their occurrences.

  • Improved standard of living

Science has a major contribution in the improvement of civilizations. Ancient civilizations those      made advancements in science were prosperous and way ahead of others. Through science they were able to develop new means and methods of trade and commerce. They were able to build strong houses, better sanitation and drainage system and methods of calculation. Those who gave credence to science were also able to develop new methods of transportation aiding to their trade. They lived a more secured and prosperous life with standard of living way above others.


  • Lower mortality rate

Advancements made in medicine have considerably reduced the death rate in humans, increasing their average life span. The Ayurvedic system of medicine developed in India is one of the oldest medical sciences in the World. This ancient system not only helped in treatment of diseases but also in finding their cause. During 600 BCE, medical surgery was known in India, by efforts of Sushruta (founding father of surgery). Sushruta samhita is one of the oldest known surgical texts containing details of diagnosis, observation and treatment and prognosis of various ailments as well as procedures for performing plastic surgery.

  • Improved irrigation

New scientific advancements in the field of irrigation has improved productivity as well as decreased the risks. With the development of new seeds, irrigation methods, pesticides and fertilizers the irrigation science has made considerable achievements, effecting life of millions in India and around the world. Ancient humans were also much advanced in irrigation methods.  Some of the irrigation systems build around 2nd century in China, still supply water for irrigation even today.

  • Improved transportation

Advancements in science have lead to improvements in the field of transportation. Ancient Egyptians were the first to use power of wind to guide their sailing ships. Transportation plays an important role in the trade and commerce serving as its backbone. With no transportation the trade of a country will come to stand still and incur the financial losses. An improved transportation means faster and safe delivery of goods with an improved economy.

  • Improved communication

The advancements made in communication technology through decades of observations and experiments have made major improvements in means and methods of communication.  By 19th century humans started using telegraph as a tool for communication. Today it is possible to talk to someone sitting in another corner of the world, in real time.

  • Inspires creativity

One of the most important characteristics of science is that it inspires creativity. Science is a constant pursuit for finding logical conclusions to the questions by persistent experiments and subsequent improvements. In simple words science inspire individuals or even civilizations to find new methods of social and economical improvements and improving them further based on past experiences.

  • Planetary system

It is science which has helped us understand of our planetary system and its other constituents. Science provides the answer for earth’s movement and appearance of days and nights. It explained the occurrence of lunar and solar eclipses, different seasons of the year as well as high and low tides in oceans.

Disadvantages of Science

Despite having numerous advantages, science has some disadvantages too as listed below-

  • Increases laziness

The improvements in science have definitely increased human convenience and improved their quality of life, but have also made them lazy and lethargic. Due to breakthrough advancements in transportation, there is a considerable decrease in the physical stamina of humans. Today the advances made by science in various fields have considerably decreased human efforts making them lazier. For example, farmers can now use new irrigation systems to improve productivity, without putting much physical effort.

  • Increases unemployment

Science has considerably reduced human efforts and replaced humans with more efficient and accurate machines. Machines are more accurate and can work for longer hours than humans without needing even a break. Such technological advancements in various industries, mainly production has left many unemployed.

  • Increased pollution

With advancements in science and technology there is an unprecedented growth in number of production units in world, emitting harmful gases and fluids as byproducts.  Such harmful gases and byproducts do a considerable to the environment apart from harming health of humans.

  • Element of risk

There is always some amount of risk involved in science and related experiments. Wright brother’s experiments in flying were stalled when they met with a fatal accident on September 17, 1908. History is replete with man’s quest for scientific experiments and their fatal consequences. There had been many experiments in the fields of nuclear energy and chemical warfare often resulting in fatal consequences.


Despite having few disadvantages, science plays an important role in the existence and improvement of human civilization. Today science has become essential for human’s and play a vital part in their existence. The contribution that science has made in the fields of technology, communication, irrigation and transport cannot be neglected and has helped civilizations for centuries to survive. Although the involvement of science cannot be removed, there is a need to exercise some restrain in its implication considering its impact on environment and life on earth.