Pollution Essay

Pollution nowadays has become a serious ecological issue and a threat to the mankind as well as the ecosystem. The natural and anthropogenic causes are responsible for the increasing pollution level of our planet. But anthropogenic or the man-made activities are majorly responsible for it. Pollution before was a silent killer but nowadays it is responsible for millions of deaths around the globe. Air, Water, Land, Radioactive pollution have killed millions of people in the past decade.

Sample Essay on Pollution for Students

1100 Words Essay


Whenever we get to hear the word pollution we imagine a picture full of smokes, dust, dirty water, atmosphere full of harmful gases, littering of plastic all around etc. This is the perfect picture to describe pollution and this has also become a reality in most of the developed countries. The over accelerated industrialization, uncontrolled deforestation and unprecedented growth in urbanization has given birth to pollution.


Whenever certain harmful and toxic substances mix with our natural resources resulting in making them unsuitable for the survival of mankind we call it Pollution. Pollution is always harmful for human health as well as the other species and vegetation on earth.


Pollutants are the substances which mix with our natural resources making them polluted. Pollutants could be of many types depending on the resources which they pollute. Based on the pollutants below are the major types of pollution.

Types of Pollution

Following are the major types of pollution which are directly affecting us and our ecosystem:

  • Air Pollution

Air pollution is caused due to the air pollutants like smoke, dust, toxic gases, green house gases etc. These pollutants mix with air and degrade its quality.

  • Water Pollution

When water pollutants like toxic chemicals, pathogen, detergents, oils etc. mix with water bodies like rivers, lakes and oceans they make the water polluted and unsuitable for consumption.

  • Land Pollution

Land pollution is the degrading of the quality of the land due to over usage of certain fertilizers and pesticides.

  • Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is caused due to the excessive noise coming out from the machines, transportation system, airports, crackers, playing music at a very high volume etc.

  • Radioactive Pollution

Radioactive pollution is the contamination of the natural resources by the radioactive substances like Uranium.

Causes of Pollution

The main cause of pollution is anthropogenic. It is now accepted by the researchers and environmentalist worldwide that every type of pollution is caused by the man-made activities. Following are the few causes of pollution.

  • Industrial and Transportation Emissions

The manufacturing industries release as huge amount of toxic waste and poisonous fumes. The toxic wastes are disposed off in the rivers and lakes causing water pollution alongwith the fumes and smokes leading to air pollution. The vehicular emissions of harmful gases from the exhaust of the vehicles are also responsible for increasing pollution.

  • Improper Waste Disposal System

The improper waste disposal system also contributes to the pollution. The hazardous waste from the industries and biological waste from hospitals and households are disposed off in rivers and lakes without any treatment eventually giving rise to water and air pollution.

  • Fossil Fuels

Petroleum products and Coal are the fossil fuels which have majorly contributed in pollution since the inception of the civilization. Coal is majorly used in power plants and households which release harmful gases and ashes leading to air pollution.

  • Agricultural Activities

Though the use of Fertilizers and Pesticides has shown the path to Green Revolution but the over usage of these chemical based products have made our land infertile and contaminated our water bodies including groundwater. The pesticides have also killed many species of birds.

  • Deforestation

The forests which were responsible for maintaining the temperature of earth and absorbed huge amounts of carbon dioxide have been cleared to make way for the concrete jungles. This has not only given rise to pollution but it had also impacted millions of species losing their habitat.

  • Use of Plastics

Plastic was one of the most useful inventions of mankind which has now become a curse for them. Plastic is a non-biodegradable component which is used and then littered on land and water. These plastic dumps have not only made our land infertile but killed many animals who get choked when they unknowingly swallow it. Burning of plastic to get rid of them is also not possible since it releases toxic gases when burnt.

  • Radioactive Leakage and Waste Disposal

The improper waste disposal of the radioactive substances leads to Radioactive pollution which is though rare but most fatal of them all. Accidental leakage or natural calamities leading to radioactive leakage have been already witnessed in history. People have still not forgotten the Three Mile Island accident and the Chernobyl disaster in 1979 and 1986 respectively.

Effects of Pollution

The effects of pollution are colossal and it has already started affecting each and every species alive on earth. There are many effects which are directly affecting us and our ecosystem. Apart from the health, the increased pollution level has given rise to Global Warming which is another deadly effect of pollution.

  • Health Effects

This is the direct effect which everyone has faced at least once in their lifetime. The pollutants present in air have made us ill many times and responsible for common ailments like allergy, cough, sneezing etc. Alongside these minor effects people have also faced severe asthma attacks and heart failure due to the air pollution. Not only air but water also has become toxic. Contaminated water had killed millions around the globe in the last decade.

  • Global Warming

The greenhouse gases like Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide etc. have intensified the green house effect leading to global warming. Global warming in turn is responsible for many other effects on ecosystem like climate change, sea level rise, ocean acidification etc.

  • Affecting the Marine Ecosystem

The air and water pollution has also affected the aquatic animals. The Ocean acidification has lead to coral bleaching. The harsh chemicals from the factories waste has not only killed many species but has also affected their hormonal changes leading to behavioral shifts. The water pollution has also lead to the depletion of oxygen in the water bodies leading to the suffocation of the aquatic species.

  • Acid rain

The industrial emission contains gases like Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide which reacts with the water molecules and result in acid rain. Acid rain is a threat to our ecosystem which in course can affect agriculture, natural vegetation and aquatic animals.

  • Infertile Agricultural Land

Over-use of pesticides and fertilizers has degraded the quality of agricultural land. Additionally it is also responsible for contaminating the surface and ground water.

  • Hypertension and Hearing Loss

This is the effect of noise pollution. The consistent noise over certain decibels can increase our blood pressure leading to hypertension and hearing loss. The sound of traffic and car horns can lead to dizziness and severe headaches. High sound can also affect animals making them aggressive and in certain cases deaf.

  • Radioactive Pollution Effects

Long exposure to these radioactive radiations can damage DNA and affect internal organs. Gamma radiation directly affects the cells leading to skin, lung and thyroid cancer. The effect of radioactive exposure in plants leads to their genetic mutation and affects their growth and function.

Prevention of Pollution

It is rightly said that prevention is always better than cure. Many steps could be taken to prevent the increasing pollution.

  • Proper Waste Disposal System

It is the requirement of the time to develop a mechanism for the proper waste disposal system. The industrial and household waste should be treated and the impurities and toxic elements have to be neutralized before draining them into the river or releasing them into the atmosphere.

  • Conservation of Natural Resources

Limited natural resources like Coal, Petroleum products, Water and Natural Gas etc. have to be conserved and not over used.

  • Reduce Fossil Fuel Consumption

Fossil fuels usage has to be reduced on a larger extent since the byproducts of these fuels give rise to pollution. The particulate matters, smoke and toxic gases are very harmful for the environment. Reduction in consumption of theses fuels will eventually reduce pollution.

  • Use of Renewable Sources of Energy

Harnessing the renewable and cleanest form of energy like Solar, Water and Wind should be increased. These energies are readily available and cost effective way of controlling pollution.

  • Use of Electronic Vehicles

Battery operated vehicles like E-Cars and E-Bikes are the best way to fight air pollution. These vehicles provide a best alternative to the fossil fuels based vehicles and also does not pollute our environment.

  • Sanitation and Plantation

Cleanliness is next to Godliness. We must keep our surroundings green and clean. Littering of plastics and garbage should be completely avoided and plastic bags should be always disposed to the recycle hubs. Draining of harmful chemicals, medicines, oil, grease etc. should not be done in sewage outlet. Planting more trees is a best way to decrease pollution.

  • Rainwater Harvesting

Rainwater harvesting should be encouraged to help replenish the ground water source. It is the best method which could help to solve the water crisis in cities and villages.

  • Using Bio-Fertilizers

Use of Bio-fertilizers should be promoted in agricultural activities. This helps in detoxifying the land and also good for the development of friendly bacteria and earthworms which increase the soil’s productivity.


Pollution is increasing at a very rapid rate. It has now become evident that we should start taking action against it. Around 9 million people are killed globally by pollution every year and India ranks first in pollution related deaths around the globe. There were 2.5 million pollution related deaths in India in 2015 followed by China with 1.8 million. These statistics are shocking as well as alarming. We have to wake up now and contribute whatever we can as an individual and fight the curse of pollution. Unless we believe in Elon Musk’s ambition of setting a colony on Mars, let’s make our planet a better place to live in.