Long Essay on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is an ambitious scheme launched by the government of India to make its cities neat and clean and open defecation free. Inaugurated on the birth anniversary (2nd October) of Mahatma Gandhi in 2014 the scheme will last for five years, concluding on his 150th birth anniversary on 2nd October 2019. The scheme has been a success till date with rigorous cleaning campaigns and thousands of millions volunteering in several drives. It also holds many distinctions including being the largest national cleanliness drive so far.

Long Essay on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in English

We are providing below a long essay on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in English for your information and knowledge.

The essay has been written in simple English language to make it more memorable and easily presentable.

After going through the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan long essay you will know the propose of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan; inculcation of its formation idea; its launch; its objectives and significance; funding of the project; functioning of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and its functioning and progress.

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Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Long Essay (1400 Words)


Swachh Bharat Abhiyan or Swachh Bharat Mission is a five years (2014 – 2019) campaign launched by the Government of India as a national initiative for cleanliness. The mission was inaugurated by Prime Minister Sri Narendra Modi on 2nd October 2014, the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi at Raj Ghat, New Delhi. The mission has a much broader national objective which includes activities like clean streets, clean roads, neat and clean buildings, clean house etc. Making India open defecation free till 2nd October 2019 is also one of the mission’s most important objectives.

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan - Formation

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a restructured form of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan which was launched on 1st April 2012. The latter was a restructured form of Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) launched on 1st April 2000. Under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan the government provided subsidies to rural household for the construction of latrines in order to discourage open defecation. To encourage Gram panchayats and also to recognize their efforts in implementing the scheme, incentives were provided to them under Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP).

This Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) was restructured into Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Gramin and Urban), covering a lot of new areas like – construction of community toilets in rural as well as urban areas, portable toilets, rigorous campaigns to clean the surroundings and environment. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan also includes participation of schools, children, government and private sector employees, non government organizations etc, making the implementation more effective.

Why was the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Needed?

Despite several initiatives taken by previous governments of India, open defecation remained a major environmental, health and safety issue, primarily in rural areas. As per the records, prior to 2014, there were around 550 million people defecating in open. It had become a part of their every day routine.

Apart from being an unhygienic and unethical practice, open defecation was also a serious health concern. It was also found that same amount of open defecation was causing more diseases in places with dense population.

Also, there was an urgent need to instill a sense of responsibility in people about their own surroundings and towards the environment. A message was needed to be sent to the people that only personal cleanliness isn’t enough and they also have a national responsibility to keep their country clean.

Swachh Bharat Mission - Objectives

The mission has several objectives pertaining to cleanliness in rural as well as urban areas. It includes objectives like – making India open defecation free till 2nd October 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi; empowering urban local bodies by enhancing their capacities in order to ensure better implementation of the scheme; to make people more aware of healthy sanitation practices and to discourage them from open defecation etc.

The mission also aims for a proper waste collection and disposal mechanism, implementing modern techniques, both in rural and urban settlements.  Elimination of manual scavenging is also a prime objective of Swachh Bharat Mission.

Another objective of Swachh Bharat Mission was to include large scale participation of private sector either monetarily through contribution in capital expenditure or volunteering physically for cleanliness drives.

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Funding

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is funded by the Central Government of India with aids from the World Bank, state governments and private sector.

Under the scheme, the government is providing an incentive of INR 12000 to the rural households for the construction of toilet. The total cost of the mission is estimated to be around Rs 620 billion.

In the 2016 Union Budget of India, presented in the Parliament on 29th February the same year, an amount of Rs 90 billion was allocated for the mission. Monetary support came from World Bank in 2016, which provided a loan amount of USD 1.5 billion and technical assistance of USD 25 million for the Indian government’s cleanliness initiative.

Funds were also received by the state governments of the respective states and corporate sector under corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Functioning of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

The Swachh Bharat Mission was divided into two parts – Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (rural or gramin) and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (urban). Former operates under the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation while the latter operates under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

The campaign relied on its devoted workers at grass root level for its success. Volunteers called Swakchhagrahis or cleanliness ambassadors are appointed in villages to look primarily after sanitation and plumbing. Their main objective is to look after the indoor plumbing of houses and to make people aware about sanitation habits and requirements.

The responsibility of disposing of waste from government offices was given to the CPWD i.e. Central Public Works Department. Indian railway also augmented it toilets by switching to bio toilets and a proper waste collection and disposal mechanism from coaches. It also provides washed and disinfected bed rolls to its passengers under Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.

A new and innovative collaboration between Swachh Bharat Mission and Digital India was also seen with the installation of solar powered dustbins; those send messages to the cleaning staff, when they are full.

Other campaigns like Swachh Vidyalaya and Bal Swachhata Abhiyan were launched under the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan as the flagship campaign.

Progress Monitoring of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

The progress of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is monitored on day to day basis by the local administration and gram panchayats. The data is made available to the common public through government notifications and through other modes of communication. A Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) mobile App has been specifically designed to keep the data available at public platform and to improve transparency.

Several non-governmental organizations also provided real time monitoring data of the mission. Some of the NGOs working hard to make the mission a success are – SwaCH Pune and The Ugly Indian.

Since the inception of the program two Swachh Sarvekshans or Cleanliness assessments of the cities had been conducted by Quality Council of India under the Ministry of Urban Development.

The survey was first conducted in 2016 and then in 2017 on 73 cities and 500 cities respectively. In both the surveys the city of Indore in Madhya Pradesh topped the list as the cleanest city of India. Dhanbad in the state of Jharkhand was declared the most poorly cleaned city in the country.

Success of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

Since its launch the campaign was hugely successful in garnering support of masses. In the initial stages the campaign had many volunteers and activists from all walks of life including politicians, notable public figures, actors etc.

It proved to be the country’s largest ever, cleanliness drive with approximately three million participants from all over India, including teachers, students and government employees from cities, towns and villages.

As per the statistics, the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan had been quiet successful in its objectives. At its inception the mission had an objective of making India open defecation free till 2nd October 2019, by constructing nearly 90 million toilets throughout Indian villages. More than 90 million toilets have been constructed till January 2019 and the number of open defecation has been significantly reduced from 550 million to 150 million as in late 2018.

Rural sanitation which till 2014 was reeking below 40% rose high to 98% in the first four years of the mission. Western state of Haryana tops the rank with 100% of its rural households having toilets.

Till 15th February 2018, 11 states including 314 districts and 3.25 lakh villages had been declared open defecation free.

A WHO (World Health Organization) report estimated that around three lakh diarrhea deaths have been prevented due to the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.


Swachh Bharat Mission is an ambitious cleanliness drive by the Government of India. So far it is the largest drive of its kind and including active participation at ground level. The scheme has proved to be a success because of impeccable planning and hard work of those involved from top to bottom.

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