For someone struggling with the summer’s heat, getting the news about monsoon’s arrival brings a feeling of happiness and joy. Arrival of monsoon means, no more sweaty days and a promise of a lush green and clean earth with gust of cool winds and of course the mesmerizing view of rain falling from the sky.
Monsoon is as much significant for the human beings as it is for other creatures. Many prime Indian crops like rice, maize and Jowar depend on the monsoon rain for their yield. A weak monsoon means a poor crop yield and hence a financial burden on farmers, especially in the Indian sub continent.
Long Essay on Monsoon in India in English
Below we have provided a long essay on Monsoon, for your knowledge and information. After going through this Monsoon essay you will know the meaning of monsoon, what is monsoon, what causes monsoon, how many types of monsoon are there, what kind of weather does the monsoon brings, the nature of monsoon in India and Indian sub continent, what is importance of Monsoon in Agriculture of India, etc. We hope you all would like this essay:
Monsoon in India - Long Essay
Monsoon rejuvenates the flora and fauna which has been battered by the sweltering heat. It provides a new lease of life, a new hope and strength to all the living organisms to gather enough resources to beat the oncoming harsh winter and thereafter summer.
Meaning of “Monsoon”
The word “monsoon”, supposedly originated from Arabic word “mausim” which means “weather”. The term also used to indicate a shift in weather condition and onset of rains.
In early Dutch, the weather with high level of precipitation was called as “monson”, perhaps this too played a significant role in the origin of the word “monsoon”.
Types of Monsoons and Their Causes
There are about two types of monsoon (summer monsoon and winter monsoon) which is described below in detail:
1) Summer Monsoon
Summer Monsoon is basically the seasonal reversal in direction of wind, resulting in precipitation in Indian sob continent and a few other parts of the world.
The annual temperature differences between the land and sea are the prime cause of summer monsoon. It is known that the apparent position of sun with respect to earth oscillates between tropic of cancer and tropic of Capricorn.
This heating of earth land mass forms a low pressure area, causing the heated up air to move up. The upward movement of air in low pressure zone further causes the northeast and southeast trade winds to converge in the low pressure zone. Now, this zone is termed as Intertropical Convergence Zone or ITCZ.
ITCZ witnesses continuous rising of moisture laden winds to the upper reaches of atmosphere, where the cooling of moisture results in precipitation or rain referred to as summer monsoon.
2) Winter Monsoon
The cycle of events of summer monsoon got reversed during the winter monsoon. During the winter land gets cooler than sea surfaces, causing a low pressure area over the oceans. This low pressure area causes the winds from the land to flow towards the oceans. Therefore, the humid air which rises in atmosphere, over ocean surface, causes precipitation or rain over the ocean. Also, the cool air again flows back to the land to complete the cycle.
Monsoon in India and What Causes Monsoon in India
Indian Meteorological Department has described the Monsoon of India is due to the seasonal reversal in wind direction along the Indian Ocean coast. Wind direction along the coast of Arabian Sea remains from southwest for half of the year whereas for another half, it remains from northeast. The direction of monsoonal winds reverses from land to ocean in winter and from ocean to land in summer, periodically each six months.
Indian monsoon usually runs from the month of June to September; though early or late onset or withdrawal, by a couple of weeks, could be caused due to several climatic factors.
Primarily Indian monsoon can be divided into two categories- southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon. We will go through in details about these two types of monsoons causing rains in India.
Heating of land during the summer causes a low pressure area over the Indian land. Especially Thar Desert and its adjoining areas in western India form a significant low pressure zones due to continuous heating of the desert. This low pressure area causes moisture laden winds from Indian Ocean to flow inland towards west parts of India.
As India is bordered by Himalayan Mountain range from north to east, the winds from the Indian Ocean, rushing to fill the void are stopped by the tall mountains. Subsequently the wind rise high, get cooled and causes precipitation or rain in western parts of India.
Before reaching the adjoining areas of Thar Desert, the south west monsoon passes through the mountainous region of Western Ghats in south - central India and gets split into two parts. One part continues along the coast of Arabian Sea to the west, while the other flows towards the Bay of Bengal in the east and hit the eastern Himalayan range. This second part of monsoon is called the northeast monsoon.
Southwest monsoon winds are primarily responsible for rainfall over most of the Indian states except those in north east or some northern states.
The Onset of Indian Monsoon
The southwest monsoon winds enter India from the southern state of Kerala. The advance of monsoon could be witnessed from southernmost tip of India in Kanyakumari, in the state of Tamil Nadu.
The monsoon doesn’t make an appearance all of a sudden; it rather builds up over a couple of days of pre monsoon showers. These showers are usually sporadic, scattered and of shorter durations often followed by open sky and heat, thereby increasing the overall humidity.
The arrival of actual monsoon begins with continuous dark clouds spread all over the sky, followed by rain and thunder accompanied by lightening. The arrival of monsoon is so refreshing that it not only rejoices children but also the elders. The earth seems to be washed cleaned by rain; the flora looks green and fresh, with cool breezes gusting through the ears.
Usually the monsoon becomes steady after a few weeks of its arrival. It causes definite hours of rain everyday which may be followed by sunlight. The Indian monsoon starts withdrawing in the month of August, causing few or weak rains at intervals.
Places Receiving Maximum and Minimum Rains in India
Some places in the eastern Himalayan region receive the highest rainfall during monsoon. This is because the monsoon winds carry extra moisture while passing through the Bay of Bengal. Places like Shillong and Cherapunjee are world famous for their monsoonal rains.
Areas getting less rainfall during the monsoon include Chennai, the Deccan Plateau on the eastern side of the Western Ghats, desert of Rajasthan, and Ladakh in northern India.
Forecasting of the Monsoon
There are usually three ways by which the meteorological department makes announcements about the time of arrival and the strength of monsoon.
The first method is statistical method which draws conclusions based on the past recorded relationship between monsoon and several other global weather parameters.
The second method is called empirical method, which is based on time series analysis of past rainfall to predict new monsoon.
The third is the dynamical method which includes the study of general circulation models of weather and oceans to predict the monsoon.
Out of all the three methods mentioned above, the statistical method is by far the most accurate method for the prediction of monsoon. Though, it is impossible to predict the monsoon with 100% accuracy, as the monsoonal winds always remain unpredictable and mysterious.
Importance of Monsoon in Agriculture of India
India is primarily an agriculture based economy and the agriculture sector contributes 17-20% of the GDP. The yield of agricultural produces in India completely depends on the amount of monsoonal rainfall. Also, as the 60% of Indians depend on the agriculture sector for their livelihood, the monsoon impacts their financial status and living condition.
A good monsoon in India results in ample production of crops, reducing their price and import, subsequently resulting in low inflation.
Low monsoon forces the farmers and others employed by the agriculture sector, to migrate to cities for better livelihood prospects. This in turn causes population burst and lack of resources in the cities.
The season of monsoon is very important for southern Asia. Around 50% of agricultural land in India is used for agricultural activities and almost 60-65% of Indian population depends on this sector for its livelihood. I wake of such large people depending on monsoon for food, livelihood and social status; it becomes the lifeline of Indian economy.
Apart from economy, monsoon is also important for biodiversity and overall well being of species. The flora and fauna spread across the length of India depend entirely on the water they get during monsoon. Ponds, lakes, wells and many other fresh water reserves in India depend on monsoon for their water content.
However, some human induced factors are changing the climatic conditions and causing weaker rains than before. Factors like global warming, deforestation, urbanization and pollution are adversely affecting the monsoonal rains in Indian sub continent.