India has seen many notable freedom fighters in the freedom struggle. Freedom fighters from different parts of India took part in the freedom movement, irrespective of their caste, religion and ethnicity. But the name of Bhagat Singh is the first to flash our mind while talking about freedom fighters and we instantly remember a picture of a young boy with a handle bar moustache and wearing a cow boy hat, looking extremely handsome. Saheed Bhagat Singh also known as Sardar Bhagat Singh was only 23 when he attained martyrdom, an age when many of us leave college, get married and enter a rat race pursuing money, and happiness.
Long Essay on Bhagat Singh in English
The following Bhagat Singh essay provides a deep insight into the life and struggle of one of the India’s greatest freedom fighters, Sardar Bhagat Singh. You can choose this long essay on Bhagat Singh, based on your requirements.
Long Essay on Bhagat Singh (1500 Words)
Bhagat Singh was the youngest freedom fighter of India to be executed when he was only 23, and his death has inspired millions of youths to jump into the freedom struggle. To attain martyrdom at such a young age, Bhagat Singh must have had his objectives charted out at a very early age.
Born into a family of active freedom fighters and influenced by revolutionary leaders like Kartar Singh Sarabha, who became member of Ghadar party at 17 and was only 19 when executed, for his role in revolutionary movements. Bhagat Singh was hugely influenced by the patriotism and courage displayed by such freedom fighters. He was also greatly influenced by Marxist ideology and at a very early age had decided to dedicate his life for the Independence of India.
Early Life of Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh was born on 28th September 1907, at Banga village in Lyallpur district in Punjab province of British India. His parents were Kishan Singh and Vidyawati. His birth coincides with the release of his father and two uncles Ajit Singh and Swaran Singh from prison. Belonging to a family of Sikh freedom fighters the seeds of patriotism were sown early in the heart of Bhagat Singh.
Bhagat Singh did his schooling from Dayanand Anglo Vedic High school as his family did not approve of the loyalty of the officials of Khalsa High School in Lahore to British Empire. Bhagat Singh grew up reading about the Russian revolution and was deeply influenced by Marxist ideology.
College Life of Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh joined National College, Lahore in 1923 for higher studies. He fared well in studies and was active in extracurricular activities like dramatics society. He was deeply inspired by the Young Italy Movement by Giuseppie Mazzini and founded Indian Socialist Youth organization “Navjawan Bharat Sabha” in 1926. He also joined HRA (Hindustan Republican Association) which had some prominent leaders like Chandra Sekhar Azad, Ram Prasad Bismil, and Saheed Ashfaqulla Khan.
It was during his college days, that he came in contact of Lala Lajpat Rai and was deeply influenced by him. British Administration was concerned about Bhagat Singh’s increasing popularity among youths and arrested him in 1927 on false pretext of being involved in a Lahore bombing in 1926. He was later released and went to Cawnpore (now Kanpur) in United Province.
Disbelief in Non-Violent Methods
Initially during his young age, Bhagat Singh closely followed Mahatma Gandhi’s non cooperation movement but was disappointed by Gandhi calling off the non cooperation movement after Chauri Chaura incident. In Chauri Chaura incident a mob of Indian protesters set afire a police station with the inmates inside killing 23, when they were openly shot at.
Also the Jallianwalan Bagh massacre of 1919 and killing of unarmed Sikh protesters at Nankana Saheb in 1921 were the two incidents that gave wind to the patriotic thoughts of Bhagat Singh and made him believe that Indian Independence is possible only by violent and forceful methods.
He is known to have gone to the Jalianwalan bag the next day and collected soil as a memorandum of those who lost their life and pledged to drive British Empire out of India.
Important Incidents in the Life of Bhagat Singh
Saunders’s Murder (December 17, 1927)
A group of peaceful Indian protesters protesting against the Simon commission under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai in Lahore were lathi charged by police on 30th October 1928. The then Lahore Superintendent of Police James A. Scott, had ordered the baton charge in which Lala Lajpat Rai was grievously injured. Rai never fully recovered from his injuries and died on 17th November 1928 of a cardiac arrest.
The death of Lala Lajpat Rai had infuriated Bhagat Singh, who held the British Empire responsible for the ordeal. He was so deeply influenced that he is said to have taken a pledge to avenge the death of Rai. Bhagat Singh conspired with his associates from HSRA (Hindustan Socialist Republican Association), Shivram Rajguru, Sukhdev Thappar and Chandrasekhar Azad to avenge the death of Lala by killing Scott.
In a case of mistaken identity, Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev shot a young Assistant Superintendent of Police John Saunders while he was coming out of a police station in Lahore on 17th December 1927. Their associate Chandrasekhar Azad also shot and killed an Indian police constable chasing the duo. The revolutionaries evaded arrest by changing their appearances and frequently changing their locations.
Though the killing of Saunder’s was criticized by Mahatma Gandhi and various others , who thought that non cooperation was much better than violence, Bhagat Singh became a Hero in Punjab and in the minds of millions of Indian youths , who saw the act as a attempt to gain back the lost pride of Lala Lajapt Rai.
Delhi Assembly Bombing (April 8, 1929)
Bhagat Singh was influenced by a bombing in The Chamber of Deputies in Paris by a French Anarchist Auguste Vaillant. He conspired with his associate Btukeshwar Dutt to bomb the Delhi Legislative Assembly, while in session, to support “Public Safety Bill” and “Trades Dispute Act” which were held by Legislation. They intended to get themselves arrested, so that they can instigate India’s youth during court trial. Though HSRA (Hindustan Socialist Republican Association) initially refused the Bhagat Singh’s plan, as they thought that his arrest after being involved in Saunder’s murder would mean a confirm death sentence. They later agreed thinking that Bhagat Singh was their best option.
Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt exploded two improvised explosive devices in the central hall of Delhi Legislative Assembly while it was in session, shouting “Inquillab Zidabad” (Long live the revolutions) and throwing leaflets from the public platform into the main hall below. Though they could have escaped easily in ensuing smoke and confusion, if they wished to. They got themselves arrested shouting “Inquillab Zindabad”.
Delhi bombing was largely criticized by Gandhi and other sections of society as an act of violence, but was largely appreciated by the youths who saw it as an act of bravery and patriotism.
Bhagat Singh was booked for the Delhi Assembly bombing and Saunders murder case. On 12th June Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar dutt were handed over life sentences for their involvement in the Delhi Assembly bombing.
Saunders’s Murder Trial
On 15th April 1929 police raided the bomb factory at Lahore, which was setup by HSRA (Hindustan Socialist Republican Association) and arrested its key members. A similar factory in Saharanpur was raided, and some of those arrested became informants. With the new information police was able to connect the conspiracy of Saunders’s murder, assembly bombing and bomb manufacturing. Police charged Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru and 21 others with Saunders’s murder.
Bhagat Singh was send to Central Jail Mainwala from Delhi Jail, during his trial in Saunders’s murder. He witnessed discrimination between Indian freedom fighters lodged in prison and English prisoners. Indian inmates were forced to live in unhealthy and unhygienic conditions subjected to poor sanitation and were given unhealthy food. Bhagat Singh went on indefinite hunger strike, demanding equal rights as other foreign prisoners.
He also demanded that he and his fellow inmates being considered as the Prisoners of War and should be treated appropriately. Initially the jail authorities didn’t concede to his demands and tried many mischievous methods to break the fast. They filled the water pots with milk, offered various food items to the fasting revolutionaries, in an attempt to persuade them to break their fast. Amid the hunger strike Singh was transferred to Borsthal Jail, Lahore, for an advance trial in Saunders’s murder case which began on 10th July 1929.
On 13th September 1929, a fasting revolutionary, Jatindra Nath Das died after a 63 days long hunger strike and the Government’s reluctance over declaring them as Political prisoners instead of common offenders.
Finalling heeding to a resolution of Congress Party and Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhagat Singh called off the hunger strike on 5th October 1929.
Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were sentenced to death in Lahore conspiracy case. They were scheduled to be hanged on 24th March 1931, but the schedule was moved forward by 11 hours and they were hanged on 23rd March 1931 at 7:30 p.m. in Lahore jail. Fearing public outarge, the Jail authorities sheepishly took out the bodies of the Martyrs and cremated them under the cover of darkness near Ganda Singh Wala village and threw their ashes in Sutlej river, about 10 Kilo Meters from Firozepur.
Bhagat Singh was a great freedom fighter of India, though violent, his acts were only in retribution to the oppressive system of Governance under British Empire. Inspired by the communists and anarchist leaders of the world, Bhagat Singh was seen as a hero by the youths of India. Bhagat Singh and his stories will forever remain a source of courage for the Indian youths.